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Full text of "Effect of chlorinated organic compounds on plants grown in treated soil"

LIBRARY 
^ATEogk^^dBOARD E-872 



United States Department of Agriculture 

Agricultural Research Service 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 



EFFECT OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 
ON PLANTS GROWN IN TREATED SOIL 

By W. E. Fleming and W.W. Maines- 
Division of Fruit Insect Investigations 



When tests indicate that a new chemical has value for control of 
larvae of the Japanese t eetle (Pooillia japonica Newm .), it is important 
to determine whether olants can be grown in the treated soil. It has 
been the practice at the Japanese beetle laboratory to obtain preliminary 
information on the reaction of plants by growing some of the common 
vegetables and flowers in the greenhouse in pots containing soil treated 
with insecticidal concentrations of the new chemical. The reaction of 
these plants to some of the chlorinated organic compounds in the soil 
is reported herein. 

Experimental Procedure 

All the chlorinated organic compounds tested were of the technical 
grade used in insecticides and were formulated as dusts of known con- 
centration by the manufacturer.—' They were diluted further with talc 
to facilitate mixing them with soil. 

The medium for growing the plants was composed of 3 parts of 
Sassafras sandy loam, 2 parts of sharp sand, and 1 part of sifted peat 
by volume, mixed intimately in a rotating drum. The acidity of the 
soil was adjusted to a pH of about 6.4 by the addition of hydrated lime, 
and then a commercial 5-10-10 fertilizer was added at the rate of 20.8 
grams per cubic foot, which was equivalent to 500 pounds per 3-inch 
acre. 



1/ The writers acknowledge the assistance of L. W. Coles, C. A. 
Perkins, and H. W. Strabel of the Japanese beetle laboratory in con- 
ducting this investigation. 

2/ Aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and isodrin were obtained from Julius 
Hyman and Company Division, Shell Chemical Corporation, heptachlor 
from the Velsicol Corporation, and lindane from the California Spray- 
Chemical Corporation. 






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spring. For this purpose a fungicide that would remain in the soil for 
only a short time was desired. In view of the results obtained by Doran, 
Guba, and Gilgut (1), the soil was sprinkled with 37-percent formaldehyde, 
diluted 1:1,000, immediately after the seed had been sown and two or three 
times subsequently at weekly intervals. Each application gave good pro- 
tection for about 1 week but little or no protection after 2 weeks. No 
phytotoxic action was observed following this treatment; in fact, no 
harm seemed to be done to the foliage of small plants wetted by the 
solution. 

Experimental Design 

Although the soil in these tests was much more nearly uniform than 
would be encountered in field plots, it was realized that slight differences 
in the environment might affect the growth of the plants. The pots were 
arranged on the greenhouse benches in randomized blocks, rows of 4 to 
9 pots being used as plots or units. Each block contained 7 rows of pots, 
1 row for untreated soil, and the other rows for 3 concentrations each 
of 2 insecticides. Usually 3-inch pots were arranged 9 in a row and the 
blocks were replicated 3 times; 4-inch pots were placed 7 in a row and 
the blocks were replicated 4 times; 5-inch pots were placed 4 in a row 
and the blocks were replicated 6 times. 

Analyses of the Data 

Over 90 analyses were made of the variance in the total weights of 
the plants in the treatments in the replicated blocks. In most cases the 
differences in the green weights in the replicated blocks were not signif- 
icant. The pooled standard deviation obtained in the analyses of variance 
was used in calculating in the usual manner the least significant difference 
between the green weights in the different treatments. 

The results were expressed as relative values by dividing the mean 
weight of the plants in each treatment plus the weight required for signif- 
icance by the mean weight of the plants in untreated soil and multiplying 
by 100. Since the relationship between the treatments and the difference 
required for significance had been determined with the original data, 
this method of expressing the results did not change the relationship 
between them. 

In practically all the blocks a change of 20 percent in the green 
weight of the plants in treated soil as compared with the weight in 
untreated soil was found to be significant. A variation to this extent 
was therefore considered to be significant when the effect of the different 
chlorinated organic compounds on the various plants was evaluated. 



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- 5 



Table 1.- -Effect of treatment of soil with aldrin and dieldrin on growth of garden plants 





Number of 
plants per 
treatment 


Weeks 
grown 


Ratio of weight of plants in treated soil 
to weight in untreated soil (percent)i/ 


Plant 


Aldrin, pounds 
per acre 


Dieldrin, pounds 
per acre 




1.5 


3 


6 


1.5 


3 


6 



Aster, Crego Crimson 

Bean, Lima, Fordhook 

King of Garden 
Soy, Black Wilson 
String, Black Valentine 

Beets, Detroit Dark Red 

Broccoli, Calabrese 

Cabbage, Danish Roundhead 
Chieftain Savoy 
Perfection Savoy 

Calendula 

Carrots, Danver's Half-long 

Celery, Fordhook 

Centaurea, Snowman 

Chihli 

Chrysanthemum, Eastern Star 

Corn, Golden Bantam 

Cucumber, ^. & C. 

Dianthus, Snowball 

Eggplant, Black Beauty 

Hollyhock, Indian Spring 

Kale, Blue-Curled Scotch 

Lettuce, Black Simpson 

Morning-glory, Heavenly Blue 

Peppers, N.J. Worldbeater 

Poppy, Oriental 

Radishes, Scarlet Globe 

Spinach, Bloom dale 

Squash, Cocozelle 

Sweetpea, Pinkie 

Tomatoes, Garden State 
Marglobe 
Rutgers 

Turnips, Purple-top White Globe 

Verbena, Venus 

Zinnia, Pink Beauty 
Spun Gold 

Average 



2/ 



27 


13 


93 


94 


93 


92 


95 


86 


28 


4 


92 


91 


87 


97 


99 


95 


25 


4 


98 


98 


83 


98 


97 


92 


28 


6 


105 


94 


95 


101 


98 


95 


28 


5 


98 


99 


86 


95 


89 


90 


27 


9 


95 


83 


74 


98 


91 


91 


27 


8 


100 


101 


109 


107 


98 


104 


27 


8 


98 


97 


94 


99 


99 


98 


28 


8 


112 


123 


124 


122 


109 


99 


27 


8 


99 


94 


96 


100 


95 


91 


27 


10 


107 


99 


105 


99 


100 


102 


27 


10 


100 


102 


101 


100 


99 


80 


27 


12 


107 


95 


93 


97 


100 


87 


27 


9 


95 


96 


104 


102 


95 


93 


27 


6 


100 


98 


103 


103 


102 


104 


27 


10 


92 


95 


83 


91 


90 


90 


28 


6 


102 


87 


76 


103 


97 


83 


28 


8 


102 


106 


99 


100 


94 


93 


27 


11 


98 


89 


85 


110 


100 


79 


27 


14 


98 


97 


97 


97 


100 


97 


27 


12 


78 


76 


70 


92 


82 


63 


27 


9 


93 


97 


105 


102 


104 


98 


28,27 


9 


96 


97 


99 


100 


99 


94 


27 


5 


98 


91 


92 


101 


96 


107 


27 


13 


109 


105 


106 


114 


114 


106 


27 


11 


107 


101 


99 


106 


100 


106 


27 


6 


82 


83 


80 


83 


81 


80 


18 


12 


86 


85 


82 


83 


80 


70 


28 


5 


100 


110 


99 


100 


98 


101 


28 


10 


101 


97 


89 


98 


98 


90 


27 


8 


97 


96 


82 


91 


90 


86 


27 


8 


96 


88 


91 


88 


76 


72 


28 


8 


98 


103 


95 


99 


101 


91 


27 


7 


105 


102 


98 


96 


98 


89 


16 


9 


80 


81 


76 


94 


94 


68 


20 


10 


135 


93 


110 


92 


108 


98 


20 


7 


90 


85 


75 


96 


106 


87 



98 



95 



93 



99 



97 



91 



1/ Least significant difference 20 percent. 

2/ The first figure refers to the aldrin and the second to the dieldrin. 






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88 


88 


93 




81 




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106 


99 








109 






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103 


86 


102 


108 




8 










96 






12 








98 


98 












84 










10 


115 


101 




99 


101 


101 




8 


99 


85 


80 




100 


100 






- 


- 








98 






90 


89 


81 


102 








6 




96 


88 


98 


105 










101 










d by the Internet 


Arch 


■ 

ive 


96 




in 2013 




85 


104 








8 




105 
















89 


82 










11 






83 






88 












111 








5 




















80 


68 




86 












84 


100 














82 


105 




• 




















1 1 
















1 1 


















■ 














u 


































100 






http://archive.org/details/trchlorinaOOunit 



Table 3. --Effect of treatment of soil with heptachlor and lindane on growth of garden plants 





Number of 
plants per 
treatment 


Weeks 
grown 


Ratio of weight of plants in treated soil 
to weight in untreated soil (percent)i/ 


Plant 


Heptachlor, 
pounds per acre 


Lindane, pounds 
per acre 




2 


4 


8 


2 


4 


8 



2/ 



Bean, Lima, King of Garden 

Soy, Lincoln 
Beets, Detroit Dark Red 
Broccoli, Calabrese 
Cabbage, Chieftain Savoy 
Carrots, Danver's Half- long 
Corn, Stowell's Evergreen 
Cucumber, A. & C. 
Eggplant, Black Beauty 
Lettuce, Black Simpson 
Peppers, N. J. Worldbeater 
Radishes, Early Scarlet Globe 
Spinach, Woodruff's 
Squash, Cocozelle 
Tomatoes, Garden State 

Marglobe 

Rutgers 
Turnips, Purple-top White Globe 
Watermelon, Dixie Queen 

3/ 
Grasses, Redtop— ' 

Kentucky Blue 

Colonial Bent 

Clover, White Dutch 



25, 



25 


4 


107 


116 


107 


105 


110 


116 


25 


2/ ? 
■S 14, 11 


102 


90 


75 


81 


79 


78 


28 


103 


103 


85 


103 


101 


98 


27 


5 


98 


89 


91 


103 


93 


87 


27 


5 


105 


101 


97 


101 


106 


109 


25 


13 


103 


98 


90 


99 


103 


102 


25 


5 


95 


83 


56 


80 


80 


73 


25 


10 


101 


100 


88 


88 


87 


82 


25 


14 


101 


89 


82 


88 


79 


78 


28 


8 


98 


106 


87 


107 


94 


104 


25 


12 


96 


92 


93 


87 


84 


80 


25 


7 


106 


105 


93 


100 


97 


98 


25 


12 


109 


112 


108 


97 


91 


87 


25 


4 


97 


98 


90 


106 


99 


105 


28 


10 


92 


92 


73 


90 


84 


71 


28 


10 


91 


96 


87 


94 


97 


89 


28 


10 


92 


92 


87 


99 


97 


90 


28 


11 


96 


95 


111 


109 


116 


119 


28 


9 


99 


100 


80 


99 


98 


101 





9 


95 


104 


94 


106 


100 


101 


-- 


9 


108 


100 


91 


93 


87 


84 


-- 


9 


95 


99 


87 


89 


88 


88 


-- 


9 


95 


100 


90 


107 


105 


100 



Average 



99 



98 



89 



97 



95 



93 



1/ Least significant difference 20 percent. 

2/ The first figure refers to the lindane and the second to the heptachlor. 

3/ Twenty-four 5 -inch pots were used for each treatment. 



Ill 



3 1262 01